This paper explores the possibility of establishing Zeng Jing-lai's (1902-1977) philosophy of religion by considering ＂The Concept of 'Buddha' in the Āgamas＂ (1928), ＂Taiwan's Religions and Superstitious Practices＂ (1938), and his discussions on religion and ethics. This paper begins by examining the development of religion in Taiwan during Zeng Jing-lai's life and the state of Japanese Buddhist studies, which had a significant influence on him as a student, including the rejection by some scholars of the Mahāyāna as not spoken by the Buddha. Then, with the aid of the resarch conducted on contemporary Japanese Buddhism, this paper will investigate Zeng Jing-lai's understanding of early Buddhism, the theory on the Buddha's self-originated Wisdom, and his discussion of religions and ethic. These questions will be approached through the study of subjective religious beliefs and objective history, religious studies and Buddhist studies, studies on Buddhist scholasticism and schools, and issues on the universal and particular subjects of the philosophy of religion. Finally, with the principles consitutive of the philosophy of religion (Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Attainment), we shall probe into Zeng Jing-lai's understanding of the relation between the dharmas and the Buddha, culminating with his claims on the ＂Non-Singularity of the dharmas and the Buddha＂ and the ＂Non-duality of the dharmas and the Buddha＂, which open the possibility of a type of universal philosophy of religion.
Zeng Jing-lai, philosophy of religion, contemporary Japanese Buddhism, concept of the Buddha, early Buddhism